Dr. Irfana Siddiqui
Department of Textiles & Apparel Designing
College of Community Science
Vasantrao Naik Marathwada Krishi Vidyapeeth, Parbhani
It is advisable to construct any garment in lengthwise direction or crosswise direction of cloth. Crosswise direction of cloth has more stretch as compared to lengthwise direction and maximum blouses were stitched using lengthwise direction of cloth that is not having stretch therefore women faced problems of fitting , wrinkles and folds forms & seam slippage. Hence a research study was carried out on designing of stretchable blouse to use partial bias direction of cloth for cutting and stitching for minimizing problems of fitting of blouse & to test its suitability & comfortability by wear trials
Pilot study – In the pilot study true bias (450) & partial bias (350) direction of fabric was used for construction of stretchable blouse, in wear trials partial bias (350) fabric was found to be comfortable fit therefore experiment was carried out in partial bias fabric direction.
Selection of style of garment
A sari blouse with a cross belt was selected for the designing of stretchable blouse and the basic shape of blouse is full tight fitting.
Selection of fabric
Woven fabric especially available for sari blouses in the market was selected such as fine quality cotton/ polyester blend and 100% polyester fabric of plain weave.
Method of testing of fabric count
One square inch was marked on fabric surface and number of warp (length wise) & weft (crosswise) yarns in one square inch in fabric was counted with the help convex lance as per J.E Booth (1987) Principles of Textile Testing (An introduction to physical methods of testing Textile Fibers, yarns & fabric.
Twist measurement in the yarns of selected fabric
Fifteen inch yarns (lengthwise & cross wise) were removed from the selected fabric and marked one inch distance in the center of yarns and it was mounted in two jaws of twist tester. Untwist a known length of yarn and check visually, number of twists in per inch from the twist counter and record.
Method of testing of fabric stretch
Fabric stretch was tested by a simple method by application of a constant load to fabric, stripes of fabric were cut in size of 10 x 2 inches in three different directions such as length wise , crosswise and bias grain of selected fabric. The stripes stitched both the end of 1 inch in fold .One side of stripes was hung in a hanger and the second side of stripes applied a load of 250 gm for 10 minutes. Amount of stretch in each stripe was measured with the help of measuring tape and stretch percentage calculated and tabulated. Higher amount of stretchable fabric was utilized for stitching of women’s garments.
Method of testing of thickness
Thickness of fabric was tested with help of digital “Paramount Thickness Tester” Fabric was cut in size of 1.5 inch in diameter as per the size of templates of tester and it was mounted between the two templates of tester .Thickness of fabric was recorded from digital meter of tester and presented in percentage
Testing of cotton /polyester blend percentage
Ten gram of cotton/polyester blended fabric and 100% polyester fabric was taken and soaked in beakers separately containing 20 ml of “Meta-cresol” solution for an about 10 minute , beaker was kept on slow gas flame for warming, polyester yarns dissolved in warm meta-cresol , cotton yarns remain in the beaker as residue. Cotton yarns washed, dried and taken weight .Percentage of cotton /polyester was calculated.
Measurement of blouse
Sari blouse were collected from 30 women for measurement & using flexible measuring tape garment measurements was taken .Extra seam allowance of inches was included in original measurement as required such as in bust circumference (40+2 inches), around waist,(36+2 inches),full length (15+2), shoulder width(14) ,length of sleeves(6+2).
Method of drafting of blouse
Flat pattern method was used for sketching, drafting & according to measurement prepared paper draft separately of 30 blouses such as front, back, cross belts (yoke) and short sleeve. Four darts in front part and two darts in the back waist was planned for proper fitting of blouse
Prepared fabric for bias fold & cutting
Single layer of fabric was diagonally folded at 35o angle for obtaining bias direction, and paper draft of front, back and sleeves were placed on bias folded fabric and transferred draft of paper on fabric and each part of garment ( front, back and sleeves were cut in bias direction for stitching of stretchable garment.
Stitching & finishing
Fifteen stretchable garments were stitched in cotton /polyester blended fabric and 15 numbers of garments were stitched using 100% polyester fabric in order to understand the fabric behavior and its influence on comfort characters.
Testing of developed design of stretchable saree blouse by wear trials
Developed designs of stretchable saree blouses were distributed among selected 30 numbers of respondents for wear trails. After 30 days of wearing experiences of stretchable blouse responses of the wearer was collected for different parameters , respondents were asked to express their agreement & disagreement about the developed design of stretchable blouse on five point scale response, 5 points representing strongly agree and 1 point representing strongly disagree. Different parameters of stretchable blouse such as design of blouse, performance of fabric , wearing comfort, stretchability, flexibility tightness , donning and doffing of garment , area where the body is compressed & tight can be assumed to be tight, area where the body loose feel , looseness can be seen as folds and wrinkles in the garment , fitting of arm hole, comfort of garment in different body posture as in bending , twisting , flexing arms 900 and 1800 degrees were studied by means of grading as excellent, very good, good, fair , poor and numerical rating as 5 to 1 respectively.
Counting of wrinkles & folds on blouse
Wrinkles & folds formed on shoulder & sleeves were counted visually of 30 blouses while wearing condition by the respondents and the ratings were assigned on a five point scale, higher the number of wrinkles the rating was assigned as- 1 which denoted as very poor in fitting, l to 2 number of wrinkles rating was given as -4, no wrinkles and folds the rating was assigned as -5.
Rating scale for assessment
A three point rating scale weighted mean score(WMS) was used for assessment of developed design of stretchable saree blouses and the rating and grading as follows.
As seen from Table-1 Cent percent of women reported that they used cotton /polyester blended fabric for blouses frequently because cotton/ polyester blended fabric was found to be suitable & comfortable when worn next to skin.
Regarding the 100% polyester fabric ,50 percent of respondents used frequently for the blouse because of its shine and color found to be permanent and pressing mark of sleeves remain as it is after multiple washing followed by 10.00 percent women used occasionally and 6.66 percent respondents used very rarely because of fabric color is matching to their sari and 33.33 percent women never like to used polyester fabric for blouse because polyester fabric was not suitable to their skin.
Higher percent (50 percent) of respondents reported that they used cotton fabric frequently for their blouse followed by 20 percent women used occasionally and 13.33 percent very rarely. 16.66 percent of women reported they never used cotton fabric for blouse because color bleeds
in washing and it reduces durability and tears fast/ quickly. Ninety percent of women explained that they used Brocade/Jacquard fabric occasionally because trend and fashion and blouse pieces are attached with sari so it is compulsory to stitch and 10 percent of women used brocade fabric very rarely.
Table -1. Different types of cloth used by the women for their sari blouse
|S. no||Types of fabric||Frequently (monthly) N=30||Occasionally( six monthly) N=30||Very rarely( yearly)N=30||NeverN=30|
|1||Cotton /polyester blend||30 (100)||—||–||–|
|2||100% polyester||15 (50)||3(10.00)||2(6.66)||10(33.33)|
|3||100% Cotton||15 (50)||6(20.00)||4(13.33)||5 (16.66)|
Table -2 indicates different style of sari blouse preferred by the women
Cross belt garment
It was noted that 66.66 percent of women reported that they do not use cross belt style blouse because this style of blouse is outdated, out of fashion & tailors are not ready to stitch charges of stitching is less as about to Rs 50 to Rs 60/- followed by 33.33 percent women preferred cross belt style blouse because of habit feel comfort
Catori cut garment
As per the table ,86.66 percent of women explained that they like to use catori style blouse because of comfortable, trend & fashion & tailors like to stitch , charges of stitching is more as about to Rs 150 to Rs 300/- followed by 13.33 percent of women not like to use catori style blouse because they faced problems
Princess cut garment
Higher percent (83.33) of women showed that they not like to use Princess cut blouse because fastening arrangement of it is on back side and find to difficult to open & put on fastener without help of other person and stitching charges of it is extremely high as Rs 250 to Rs500/-, followed by 16.66 percent of women reported that they like to use princess style garment for only functional use.
Table-2. Different style of sari blouse preferred by the women
|S.no||Styles of blouse||Preferred to useN=30||Not usedN=30||Stitching charges(Rs /-)|
|1||Cross belt||10 (33.33)||20 (66.66)||50 to 60|
|2||Catori cut||26 (86.66)||4 (13.33)||150 to 200/-|
|3||Princess cut||5 (16.66)||25(83.33)||250 to 500/-|
100% polyester fabric
Table -3 illustrate physical properties of 100% polyester & Cotton/polyester blended fabric selected for stitching of saree blouse .It was clear that higher amount of stretch i:e 21% was observed in bias /diagonal direction of in100% polyester fabric followed by 9 to 5 % in length wise & crosswise direction respectively .Fabric count was noted as90x80s and thickness was recorded as about 1.68 mm. It was also observed that in the 100% polyester fabric yarns of lengthwise & crosswise not having twist but a group of filaments zigzag setting, due to zigzag setting the stretchability & its recovery of polyester fabric was found to be higher than the cotton/polyester blended fabric.
Cotton/polyester blended fabric
Stretchability of fabric was found to be higher i:e 9 percent in diagonal direction followed by 1.5 and 3 % in length wise & cross wise direction respectively. Fabric count was found to be balance in one square inch of fabric (that means lengthwise yarns 80 numbers & 80 number of crosswise yarns) thickness was recorded as 1.50mm &20 number of turn (twist) per inch was noted in lengthwise yarns (warp direction) and in crosswise yarn no twist was noted, zigzag setting was observed because these yarns of polyester.
Table-3 Testing of physical properties of selected fabric
|Fabric||Stretch percentageof fabric||Fabriccount||Thicknessmm||Number oftwist per inch in yarn||Blendpercentage|
Table -4 Problems faced by women in using various styles of blouses
|S.no||Problems faced||Types of blouses, N=30|
|Cross belt||Catori cut||Princess cut|
|1||Fabric not stretchable||15 (50.00)||12(40.0)||3(10.0)|
|2||Fabric partial stretchable||—||25(83.33)||5 (16.66)|
|3||Wrinkles & folds formed||2(6.66)||25(83.33)||3(10.00)|
|4||Body gets compressed and feel tight||21(70.00)||7(23.33)||2(6.66)|
|5||Garment stretch in upward direction in bending, flexing arms to 900& 1800||24(80.00)||6(20.00)||—|
|6||Need to pull garment to down side and feel uncomfortable||24(80.00)||6(20.00)||—|
|7||Tightness in sleeves||14(46.66)||12(40.00)||4(13.33)|
|9||Placket on back side||—||—-||30(100)|
(Figures in parentheses indicates in percentages)
As seen from Table 4.Cent percent women stated problem of cross belt blouse that no stretch in fabric and due to no stretch in fabric body gets compressed & feel tight 80 to 46.66 percent of women expressed their problems for common styles of garment of cross belt that garment rotates in twisting body posture, garment stretch in upward direction in bending, flexing arms to 900 & 1800 , need to pull garment to down side and feel uncomfortable and fabric tear on sleeve and front waist due to no stretch in fabric and very less (6.66 percent) seam slippage occur.
Catori cut design
Eighty three percent of women reported problems regarding the design of blouse (katori cut) that stretchable fabric used only for selected area that is on “front cup” (83.33 percent) and other part of fabric used straight / lengthwise direction hence folds & wrinkles formed on front shoulder and armhole side, followed by 76.66 percent of women expressed that seam slippage occur due the less seam allowance used while stitching of curve area, due to slippage raveling of thread Alteration of seam, size of garment reduced and front part of body is compressed & tight feel (23.33 percent) at this situation, fastener of garment need to open for relaxation, stitches of fastener become lose & some time it comes out from the garment, mark developed on arm and waist due to tight fitting of garment, shape of garment spoiled & unable to use. Tightness of sleeves garment stretch in upward direction in bending, flexing arms to 900 & 1800 , need to pull garment to down side and feel uncomfortable and fabric tear on sleeve and front waist due to no stretch in fabric problems was noted in the range of 40 to 20 percent women.
Cent percent of women reported problems in princess cut blouse is closing and opening as fastener arrangement at back side it is difficult to fastened without help of other person.16.66 to 6.66 percent women faced problems as partial bias fabric used in front part of blouse, body compressed and seam slippage occur.
Table-5.Evaluation of developed design of stretchable sari blouse for comfort characters
|Comfort character||Comfort scores & rating|
|Cotton/polyester blended fabric(N=15)||100% polyester fabric,(N=15)|
|Excellent(5)||Very good(4)||Good(3)||Fair(2)||Poor(1)||Excellent(5)||Very good4||Good3||Fair2||Poor1|
|Partial bias direction of fabric||70(14)||—||—||—||1(1)||75(15)||—||—||–||—|
|No strain and stress develop on body & feel comfort||75(15)||—||—||—||—||75(15)||—||—||–||—|
|Soft feel next to skin||50(10)||8(2)||9(3)||—||—||75(15)||—||—||–||—|
|No change in shape of blouse||52(13)||—||6(2)||—||—||75(15)||—||—||–||—|
|No wrinkles and folds formed||52(13)||—||6(2)||—||—||75(15)||—||—||–||—|
|Flexible in different body posture as bending , twisting , flexing arms 900& 1800 & practically fit for purpose||52(13)||—||6(2)||—||—||75(15)||—||—||–||—|
Table .5 showed that maximum score i:e 75 to 70 were noted in comfortable characters stretchable blouse with excellent grading to stretchability in partial bias direction of fabric , no strain and stress develop on body & feel comfortable followed by 52 to 50 score were given by the women after wear trials of blouse to soft feel, draping behavior , fitting, no change in the shape of blouse, no wrinkles and folds formed, flexible in different body posture as bending , twisting , flexing arms 900 & 1800 stretchability of fabric not increased or decreased after multiple washings also breathability of cotton /polyester blended fabric. Very good grading was noted for draping behavior with maximum score as about 52, minimum scores i:e 8 for soft feel next to skin. 9 to 6 ratings were recorded for soft feel next to skin, draping behavior, change in the shape of blouse. Excellent grading and higher scores i:e 75 were noted to the comfort characters of stretchable blouses stitched from 100% polyester fabric no wrinkles and folds formed on sleeves and shoulder and arm hole because the polyester fabric found to have more stretch than the cotton/polyester blended fabric, very poor grading was noted to un breathability of polyester fabric. It means that stretchable blouse was found to have comfort characters in both type of fabric materials cotton/polyester and as well as in 100% polyester
Table- 6. Evaluation of stretchable blouse for suitability on the basis of constructional features
|S.no||Constructional features||Suitability WMS|
|2||Back part developed comfort pressure||3.0**|
|3||Front part produced comfort pressure with balance||3.0**|
|4||Fitting of front and back shoulder is comfortable fit||3.0**|
|5||Fitting of front and back neckline is comfortable fit||3.0**|
|6||Sleeve armhole is flexible & comfortable fit||3.0**|
|7||Fitting of sleeves on arm is comfortable with ease and no possibility of red mark||3.0**|
|8||Placket comfortable stretch for fastening||3.0**|
|9||Waist line is comfortable fit with ease||3.0**|
Table -6 showed that constructional features of stretchable blouse was found to be comfortable fit and with regard to constructional features of stretchable blouse such as back & front parts developed comfort pressure, fitting of front and back shoulder and neck line was comfortable fit and found to be highly suitable, comfortable and acceptable with WMS (weighted mean score) was recorded as 3.00. It was also observed that flexible armhole & fitting of sleeves on arm, front placket comfortable stretch for fastening and waistline comfortable with ease, all comfort characters were noted highly suitable with WMS (weighted mean score )was recorded as about 3.0.It means that all constructional features of stretchable blouse were found to be highly suitable, acceptable , comfortable & strongly agreed.
As per the practical experiences of women stretchable blouse was found to be excellent due to stretchability in partial bias direction of fabric, flexibility, lie smooth on body without strain, no wrinkles and folds formed, comfortable fit with ease, relax feel with great satisfaction .Hence women have strongly agreed on the comfort characters of stretchable blouse and blouse found to be highly suitable, acceptable and comfortable.
Wrinkle & fold free blouse stitched with bias direction cloth
1. DOROTHY SIEGERT LYLE (1976 ) Fabric performance and labeling MODERN TEXTILE
pp329-230, published United State of America
2.Complete Guide to Sewing (1976) Techniques of Tailoring, Published United State of
America,Singer Company ,pp 359-362